The power of Google Classroom has been on display in many of the blog posts on this website. This year I have embraced the use of Google Classroom when working on projects and mini-lessons with my class in the computer lab. By posting an interactive Google Doc agenda, I have found it much easier to keep my students on task. Students are aware of the expectations going to the lab, and they are able to move from agenda item to agenda item until they finish the lesson.
Most recently, I employed an interactive Google Doc agenda with my junior class as we analyzed oral histories. Through a partnership with Brandeis University, myself and another teacher have been granted free access to The HistoryMakers Digital Archive. This archive hosts a plethora of African American oral histories. The archivists have spent hours and hours recording the stories of African American veterans, civil rights leaders, and ordinary citizens. My junior class spent a period analyzing previously culled oral history stories about World War II and race in the 1940s.
The only problem we ran into were technical problems on the HistoryMakers website. (After all, it wouldn’t be a lesson featuring technology without technical difficulties!) After a little troubleshooting, we were able to resolve the issue standing in the way of accessing the oral history videos, and students were on their way to listening to the interviews.
Overall, I think my students enjoyed working with the website and the oral histories in general. A few students shared with me that they were watching the videos of different individuals and that they got sucked down rabbit-holes, watching video after video for an individual. One student wrote in their reflection, “It’s important for these people’s histories to carry out to new generations of people to understand and appreciate the accomplishments.” I couldn’t agree more, and I’m happy that my students enjoyed interacting with the archive.
Over the next few months, my students will be working on compiling their own oral history projects on important events in American history and discussing their effect on Waltham. The HistoryMakers lesson was an important introductory step for my students, who will be working toward this larger goal.
On Thursday, October 20th, Liz Homan and I attended the MassCUE/M.A.S.S. Technology Conference at Gillette stadium. This was my first time attending the annual techie conference, and I must say, it did not disappoint. Liz and I presented about our work with the Waltham Integration Network (WIN Project) during one of the break out sessions and took advantage of attending other break out sessions led by teachers and technology specialists as well.
I had an amazing time at the conference. I figured I would share a little bit about what I experienced there as well as what Liz and I spoke about about during our presentation.
Here is a running diary of my MassCUE day:
7:35 AM: Arrive at Gillette Stadium, I am way too early. There are like five cars in the parking lot. I decide to play around on my phone and act like I am doing something important until more people arrive and I deem it suitable to enter the conference. Also, this is the closest I have ever parked to Gillette Stadium in my life.
7:45 AM: Time to check-in to the conference. They have a high tech system that scans a QR code on your phone and then prints out your name tag. I was wowed, but then again, my school was built in 1967. It doesn’t take all that much to impress me. After a long escalator ride, I end up on the main floor where they have the technology exhibitions.
7:50 AM: I wander around looking at all the technology offerings. Right away, it becomes apparent to me that education has become a serious market for technology companies. Everyone from Apple to Google has a table or leads a breakout session at MassCue.
8:15 AM: I realize that the conference is spread out throughout the entirety of Gillette Stadium. A quick analysis of the schedule tells me that Liz and I will be presenting in a luxury box… I quickly realize this will be the only way I ever set foot in a luxury box…
8:30 AM: It is time for the keynote speakers. There are a bunch of people lined up to talk about the importance of technology integration. The highlight is a speech given by a ten year old child prodigy, Collin Keegan. He talks about the gamification of education, teaching students at their level, and engaging students with fun activities. Collin has an interactive slide show where he displays his many passion projects: building a treehouse, starring in a “kid science” web series, building science projects, and flying a plane! Yes, I said flying a plane. Beyond making me feel quite inadequate (what have you done today?), he made many good points about the need for education to be entertaining and engaging. That being said, if I had a little more space here, I would push back on Collin’s line of thought for many reasons. I don’t think that learning should always be fun, because life isn’t always fun. However, I can leave that discussion for another day. Collin still kicked butt!
9:15 AM: I peel away from the larger group in search of a breakout session. I must say that I wasn’t overly impressed with the selection designed for teachers. In many ways, I think this conference is geared more toward administrators that want to buy new toys to their districts (more power to them). Like many conferences I have attended, I think this conference suffered from some less informative presenters. The first breakout session I attend is about using technology in a history classroom. The presenter simply lists websites they have used with their district. I leave halfway through this particular presentation, because I felt like I am not learning anything new. Upon exiting the room, I realize there are no other sessions that I want to attend, so I go back in with my tail between my legs.
10:45 AM: I attend a breakout session about maximizing productivity by using all the tools within Google Suite. I think this one will be right up my alley, because I frequently use Google Suite with my classes. This presenter is must better than the first, but much of what they talk about has little relevance to my classroom. First of all, the presenter starts with the premise that teachers/administrators receive hundreds of emails a day. I don’t know about other teachers out there, but I don’t receive that many daily emails to which I have to respond. Also, I am extremely Type A when it comes to my inbox, so I try to clear out emails after I complete them. This presenter does offer a good idea, however, about creating draft emails that you can reuse to send parents updates about their students. It seems so obvious in hindsight, but having a few stock emails would definitely speed up the process.
12:00 PM: At this point, Liz and I meet up in our luxury box to run through our presentation, and connect her computer to the AV system. The MassCue technology specialists are incredibly helpful by providing us with the appropriate adapters. As we set up, a few spectators arrive for our presentation. Almost immediately, we realize that Liz has connections with one of the people in the audience, Nicole Hart. Nicole is the Instructional Technology Specialist at Cambridge Rindge and Latin School. Making connections is one of the best things about MassCue, and a key to teaching and integrating technology. After our presentation, Nicole followed me on Twitter, and now we share lesson ideas and have Twitter conversations about technology integration.
12:20 PM: We begin our presentation a little late, because we end up having fewer people in our audience than we would have liked. This was quite unfortunate, because Liz did a great job putting together an excellent talk. Oddly enough, however, I end up knowing two people in our audience. One attendee is a former assistant superintendent for Waltham Public Schools (Alec Wyeth), and the other is a principal from Dedham (Jim Forrest). I found it funny that three people connected to WHS serendipitously ended up attending our presentation.
12:30 PM: Liz begins our presentation and talks about the importance of making technology integration accessible to all teachers in a school. Through her doctoral studies, Liz discovered that teachers often feel disconnected from technology integration or from teachers that are especially good at integrating technology. The WIN Project was the genesis of Liz’s research. Her goal is to demystify technology integration by creating cohorts of teachers that research and blog about technology. This will create a network of core teachers that can share discoveries, vent, and model technology integration. Liz’s goal is for the core network to grow within a school until it becomes the new normal. That being said, I think Liz hopes that our network can grow beyond Waltham, to other districts in neighboring towns.
12:50 PM: I share my part of the project with the audience. I talk about my research goal (see previous posts), and my successes and struggles throughout the process. I talked about what I’ve learned, and the importance of the project for me. The main point I make is that being involved in the WIN Project held me accountable. I had to come up with ideas for integrating technology because I had to blog and create videos. This lit a fire underneath me to come up with new ways to integrate technology. I need that kind of motivation.
1:20 PM: Liz and I finish our presentation, and we head to lunch with our new friend Nicole Hart. As we walk to lunch, we hear blaring hip hop music. Nicole explains to us that this type of loud music was playing the day before as well. It turns out that the Patriots are practicing on their practice field and simulating crowd noise by playing loud music. Without thinking, I pull out my cell phone to get a picture of my favorite football team. It never occurs to me that this is a bad idea…. Until I am yelled at by Patriot personnel. They explain to me that what I am doing is prohibited. After I delete the image, I have to prove to said Patriot personnel that my phone is void of images or video. The Patriots are protective of their practices and of keeping their playbook secret. I assume they didn’t want me to tape anything that could be intercepted by rival teams. I would never do this, but I guess the Patriots feel like they have to be extra careful. After all, they would know…. 😉
1:35 PM: Liz, Nicole, and I eat lunch from a picked over MassCUE buffet (It just so happens that our breakout session was in the middle of lunch… thanks scheduling folks), and chat about technology integration. I meet a few people from universities that offer technology courses and degrees. Maybe there is one in my future?
2:00 PM: The day ends for Liz and I so we go our separate ways. Time to sit in the famous traffic that plagues Gillette Stadium’s surrounding highways.
In the end, I had a great experience at MassCue. Although the presentations I attended were not as informative as I had hoped, I enjoyed presenting and making connections with technology specialists. I think it is important for teachers to get out and see what other schools are doing, and this was a step in that direction for me. I hope to attend this conference again in the future. Maybe next time Liz and I can present to a larger audience, because I think we had a lot of valuable things to say about technology integration.
I am embarking on my second year of the Waltham Integration Network (WIN) project, and I am now the master of technology… just kidding. If this is your first time reading my blog, then you may be unfamiliar with my research question from the last year. Let me catch you up.
As I entered the WIN project last year, I was frustrated with the technological limitations of my classroom. As a teacher of sophomores and juniors, I was a year away from having students who brought 1:1 technology into the classroom with them. Waltham Public Schools has been slowly working toward 1:1 technology, providing middle school students with iPads that they then bring to the high school with them. Therefore, I made it my mission to integrate technology into my classroom as much as possible, given the access limitations.
My research question became centered around the struggle to integrate technology into a classroom where all of the technology was external. I had to sign up for computer and iPad labs or my students had to access technology at home.
Overall, I feel I was pretty successful last year. I introduced many of my students to Google Classroom, and embraced all aspects of the Google Suite: Slides, Sheets, Forms, and Docs. For example, my students completed paperless research papers. In addition, I had my students create screencasts with an app called Touchcast. Lastly, I practiced using Remind with my students (I didn’t like it…shhh, don’t tell anyone).
As I mentioned in my first ever post, part of my research question was spurred by fear. I always want to be on the cutting edge of pedagogical techniques. I fear being left behind when the rest of the profession moves on to different teaching styles and techniques. So, I intentionally created a goal that would push me out of my comfort zone.
Now in year two of my research, I was fortunate to welcome a sophomore class with 1:1 iPads into my classroom this fall. Therefore, I am now straddling both worlds. I have two classes of students with 1:1 technology and three without. Needless to say, next year will see all of my classes with 1:1 technology.
Hence, my goal for this year is to increase the use of technology with my sophomore class. I will continue in the same manner as last year with my juniors. I want to start out the year by substituting and augmenting my use of paper by using apps like Google Form to produce Exit and Entrance tickets. Hopefully this will allow me to speed up my grading and allow me to provide more efficient feedback to my students.
However, as the year progresses, I want to think about more sophisticated ways to use the 1:1 technology my sophomores have. Yes, I’m talking the SAMR model, for all of you technological folks (Liz Homan is doing a little dance). I want to modify and redefine what I do. I want to enhance student learning and begin to approach and embrace more Project Based Learning.
Tune back in here each month to see how my goal plays out!
After reflecting on my research topic and question this year, I think that focusing on primary sources has helped to increase both student understanding and engagement in my social studies class. I believe that students had a deeper understanding of the content being taught in class, which therefore helped to improve student engagement and class discussions. Students learned the process and importance of analyzing primary sources with the support of technology. This analysis helped create lessons that required students to critically think and synthesize information.
Last week I asked my students to complete a Google Form to get feedback from my students about primary sources. When asked how students felt analyzing primary sources at the beginning of the school year on a scale of 1-5, 66.3% of my students responded a score of 3. When asked how students felt about analyzing primary sources now 100% of students responded with a score of either a 4 or 5. I was encouraged to see that my students now felt more comfortable reading and analyzing primary sources. I also received feedback that my student’s favorite primary source we looked at this year was Hammurabi’s Code. I agree with my students as these laws provide a shock value when learning what the laws were in ancient Babylon. This was an example of a primary source encouraging student engagement and interest in the content we are learning about.
Nearpod has been my main use of technology to help roll out the analysis of primary sources. This application allowed students to zoom in on images and it allowed me to focus on key points of a primary source. Nearpod allows you to share student work with the rest of the class. One student commented on the primary source survey “I like when you share my answer with the class.” In addition, I have really enjoyed sharing the Nearpod field trip with my students this year. This new feature on Nearpod allows students to virtually travel to the areas we are learning about in class. My students loved this feature! When teaching about the Parthenon, what could be better than taking a virtual field trip to the Parthenon itself? Here is a picture of a student enjoying the field trip. One student wrote “the field trips are awesome because it feels like you are really at the spot we are learning about and you can see all around it.” Below is a picture of my students on a field trip to the Parthenon.
Next year, I would like to explore the use of Google Maps and Google Tours in my classroom. I am most interested in exploring Google Tours because this application will allow students to be the tour guides of the ancient cities we are learning about in class. Google Tours provides both visuals and an area for students to add a description. I plan to create a project using this application next year. Stay tuned to receive your own personal tour of ancient history!
As we enter into the “home stretch” of the school year, I thought I would share a few reflections on the research I have done this year.
A quick reminder for readers: I am a U.S. History teacher at Waltham High School and my research this year has been a qualitative analysis of technology integration in a classroom with no direct 1:1 technology. I have attempted to analyze the struggles, realities, and triumphs of embracing 21st century skills in a classroom with 20th century technology.
As mentioned above, I have attempted to integrate as much technology as possible into a classroom that has inconsistent access to 1:1 technology. The technology-based projects, assignments, and lessons that I created have primarily taken place in the four labs (three computer, and one iPad) in my school.
For the most part, I have been able integrate technology into my classes at least once each month. However, I have found it difficult to maintain an integrated classroom throughout the school year. Although applications have allowed me to sprinkle in technology, I am far from a place that is a truly integrated or “flipped” classroom.
As I reflect on the past year, I find it difficult to isolate just one or two reasons that I was unable to fully integrate technology into my classroom. I know that one of the reasons is that technology in my school is limited and in high demand. This leads to a race to secure coveted lab reservations. So, the lessons where I am able to fully integrate technology are only those which I am able to foresee weeks in advance and book space accordingly. For instance, I planned ahead to have my classes complete the Touchcast assignment and Paperless Research Papers. However, this advanced planning rules out spontaneity. If three days prior to a classroom lesson, I have a stroke of genius about a great way to integrate technology, I won’t be able to make it happen because the lab will already be booked.
The lack of 1:1 technology also limits my ability to give formative and summative assessments online. I have found this to be restrictive. For instance, if I did have regular access to 1:1 technology for my students, I would have been able to use Socrative, Poll Everything, and other similar applications more efficiently. (Aside: since most students have their own cell phones, I contemplated having students use them to access apps like the aforementioned. However, after some thought, I decided against it.)
Furthermore, it has been difficult to maintain a flow of lessons that embrace technology integration throughout the school year. I have struggled with the conflicting demands placed upon me as a high school teacher. Teachers are required to cover certain content by particular dates, as bookmarked by required student assessments. This demands a certain amount of teacher-centered learning. At the same time, however, teachers are encouraged to “flip” our classrooms and engage in student centered learned.
The assessments mandated by our school and state, remain traditional and primarily factual tests. For instance, this year I have been responsible for administrating four in-class writing assignments, a midterm, and a final. These are six assessments that took away from classroom time or interrupted the flow of a unit I was teaching. I am not saying that these assessments are worthless. But, in my opinion, they do not measure or give students credit for the skills and ideas learned through innovative, technology integrated lessons. Thus is life, but it hinders creativity.
I feel that we can never truly embrace 21st century learning as long as we continue to employ 20th century assessments. I believe this to be a fundamental problem facing education.
Despite these challenges, I do think I had a fair measure of success with integrating technology this school year. Although I felt restricted in my ability to secure lab time, I discovered useful apps like Google Forms, Google Classroom, and Remind. These apps allowed me to push my U.S. History students to use technology outside of school, for homework assignments. (I chronicled my trials with these apps in previous blog posts). Despite the challenge of sustained use, Google Forms and Google Classroom helped to transform a lot of my teaching this year.
Furthermore, at when point when I was able to plan far into the future, my Honor’s Level U.S. History II students completed projects solely using Touchcast. Touchcast allowed my students to participate in a “flipped classroom” while creating projects about a Cold War unit that in previous years, I had taught in traditional ways.
In the end, I have achieved one of my major goals for this assignment: next year, I will have at least two classes of tenth graders that come to my classroom with 1:1 iPads. I am sure there will be structural barriers to navigate, but I am excited to think of new ways to use this technology next year.
Moving forward, I have a few tools in my belt with some of the apps I tried and found success with this year. I have some interesting ideas about how to use iPads for formative assessments. Most importantly, however, I have a new way of thinking about my teaching. I maintain my ultimate goal of achieving a more technologically integrated classroom. I’m not there yet, but I’ll get there one day.
It’s March… which means we have entered the “Heartbreak Hill” section of the teaching marathon. Not only this month mark the longest stretch of uninterrupted teaching all year, it also marks the point where I embark on the yearly task of teaching research papers.
The month of March consists of me teaching students: why we cite sources, how to research with scholarly sources from peer reviewed databases, how to write introductions, why Wikipedia is not an approved source. And of course, how to capitalize letters… Just kidding on the last one.
In all seriousness, writing research papers with high school students can be frustrating because so much of what humanities teachers do during the writing process is antiquated. Students simply don’t understand the purpose of writing research papers. I think most students believe we are simply trying to make them jump through hoops. “Cite that source!” “Double space that paper!” “Size 12 Times New Roman Font!” These are actual quotes from a nightmare I had a few nights ago!
As a history teacher at Waltham High, teaching research papers has always been the Wild West. The only requirement placed on teachers is that we have students write a research paper at some point during the year. The assignment itself depends on the teacher. I usually write a traditional research paper with my students.
This month’s blog post illustrates my attempts to utilize Google Classroom and Google Docs in an effort for students to complete research papers without actual paper. I attempted to rely solely on these online platforms for the writing, submission, and grading of papers. Not a radical idea by any means, but also one I had not yet tried.
Google Classroom is an application featured through the Google Suite and it is offered strictly to teachers. There is no surprise in the name, it offers an online classroom similar to online platforms like Edmodo. Since Waltham High School (WHS) provides all students with a google account students simply have to log in to their Google Account to access the Classroom application. Students must use their WHS account to access Google Classroom, they would be denied access if they attempted to log in with a home account.
Once students log in, they can join a teacher’s classroom by entering a password that is provided by the teacher. Once inside the
classroom, an email is sent to students whenever a new assignment is created by their teacher or when their teacher has returned or graded one of their assignments.
For the teacher, Google Classroom serves as a place to post assignments. Assignments can be anything from a discussion question that asks students to post a response, to an essay that needs to have a document attached.
Over the course of this year, I have used Google Classroom for small formative assessments. This allowed me to familiarize my students with the application, so that we wouldn’t have logistical problems when we depended on it later in the year. The early use of Google Classroom was building towards my larger goal for the month of March: to use Google Classroom as the sole platform for interacting with students’ work while they wrote traditional research projects.
Throughout the year, I have created many different types of assignments for my students to complete in our Google Classroom. The first week of school my students posted answers to discussion questions, and followed links to surveys about themselves. Later in the year, students completed extra credit readings and attached answers to questions. Students also were able to access links to Google Form quizzes (mentioned in an earlier post).
This year I told students that I was not accepting hard copies of their research paper. I know this may seem like a radical move, but I think going paperless makes complete sense. It cuts out excuses about printers and allows students to turn in assignments from any device. Therefore, students were to type their research papers in Google Docs and submit them through Google Classroom. Throughout the month of March, I posted assignments that asked students to attach segments of their research project as we progressed to the final copy. In the end, each student attached a draft of their paper as well as a final, edited copy.
Unsurprisingly, I have really enjoyed using Google Classroom. For one, it has allowed me to go almost completely paperless. Instead of having students flood me with paper, I have electronic copies that I can edit and grade online through Google Docs. Students can see the changes or suggestions I have made and decide whether to reject or accept them.
More importantly, I find myself grading electronic rough drafts and final copies much faster than paper copies. Therefore, I am saving precious time. Furthermore, I can post students grades as soon as I am done grading and send them an email notification letting them know that I have finished reviewing their paper.
Overall, I think using Google Classroom for project submission and Google Docs for essay writing is a no brainer. I think the only drawback to Google Classroom is that sometimes students are stumped by its interface. I have had a few students unsure of where to post on the Google Classroom, so they simply email me the paper. It is a small frustration, but one I can handle.
In sum, I recommend going paperless and using Google Classroom and Google Docs to write traditional research papers. I think it saves time, cuts out excuses about printer and computer problems, and prevents students from losing papers or forgetting to save their papers. And of course, the trees will thank you!
February really seemed to fly by. Preparing for tests and in-class essays coupled with February break didn’t really leave much time to try out a new approach to research in the classroom. So what I decided to shift gears to was focusing on how students’ questioning has developed. The purpose of my research is twofold: to have students be researching more in class in new ways, but also to see if that research enhances inquiry in all areas of learning. So I decided to have a questions-heavy plan for this month.
There were a few things that I was particularly excited about while I reflected on the types of questions my students were asking. First, I found that my students were asking more questions about topics than they seemed to be asking at the beginning of the year. When I began my Russian Revolution unit, my classes worked to create a KWL chart. They brainstormed anything they knew about Russia and/or the Russian Revolution, and asked wonderful questions centered around how to better understand the revolution. Then I had students read a very short “Big Picture” reading about the Russian Revolution, and they went back to the KWL chart to determine what they’d learned and ask even more questions. Below I included an example of a C1 class’s pre-reading and post-reading chart. I was excited to find that their second set of questions transitioned to open-ended “how” and “why” questions from the more fact-based questions of the first round.
I also noticed a greater independence in many of my students to ask questions and think critically about the material. After analyzing a political cartoon that criticized the social structure of pre-revolution Russia, one student who consistently struggles with this class asked me, “Do you think that if the artist was trying to show society in a positive light he would have shown everyone as equals?” I was thrilled to hear this student thinking beyond the information presented to her and asking questions to understand the topic better. Furthermore, she didn’t ask “How would an artist show society positively?” but she was able to infuse her hypothesis into the question.
Something I was most excited about with my students’ questioning dealt with their reflective questioning while independently learning about a topic. After studying the Armenian Genocide, I gave one of my classes and assignment to write about the role of traditional and social media regarding bringing awareness and action against genocide. These students also independently researched a current example of genocide (or potential genocide) to include in their writing. One student began her essay with the question “How can it be that I have access to so much information through the internet yet I have never heard of the awful events happening in the Central African Republic?” This question thrilled me because this is why people need to ask questions. It’s not just to understand information better, but to reflect on why things are the way they are, and taking that a step further questioning if and how that can change.
Overall, my students are definitely demonstrating progress in their willingness and ability to question information and also question their own role in the world.
One part of history that I always struggled to get into was war battles, and so that followed me into my teaching. Any unit that is war-themed, which let’s be honest, there are quite a few, always make me a little anxious for how I’m going to try to make a creative and engaging lesson on the actual fighting-the-war part. I think I’ve tried a different approach each time I’ve reached that point in a unit, so again I faced this dilemma with World War I in my freshman class. I decided this would be a good opportunity to try working with a structured research assignment using the iPads in class.
I had small groups assigned to one of four significant battles in the war, and they had to do some research to determine why this battle mattered. I introduced these as some of the bloodiest battles in the war, which definitely hooked some students. And really just sent them off to find out why. Each group had a “starter set” of information to read through to help focus their research. Something I’ve noticed from previous research assignments is that students often get intimidated by the amount of information out there. I figured that by finding sources to frame the basis of their knowledge of their battle, I could avoid some of that initial intimidation that can keep students from really knowing anything about their topic.
One other strategy I decided to implement in this project was for students to write out more detailed research questions as they read through each new source. After talking with our school librarian a few months ago, she highlighted how often our freshmen struggle crafting research questions in the first place. That is why I gave my students the overarching research question, but had them create their own sub-questions as they continued with the research process. Groups came up with some great ideas like:
How did they rebuild their city after the war?
How did reinforcements know to come help the French?
What is the benefit of the Turks being pushed out of the war?
Did the allies go back to fight in the Ottoman Empire ever again?
How did this battle affect or change the war overall?
How did the weather impact the battle?
Why are New Zealand and Australia in this battle?
Overall, there were still many clarification type questions listed, but I was still very excited to see these types of connections questions that groups were asking to inform their research.
Being able to use the iPads as a tool for this assignments was very powerful. Because there are always issues with the iPads ranging from it’s not working, it’s been left at home, or some students just don’t have one, I made sure that this wasn’t an iPad dependent assignment for all students. I made sure each group had at least one, and printed off paper copies of the articles in that “starter set” of information. Beyond that, groups had to use the library databases to find at least one more article on their iPad to answer those sub-questions that still lingered in their minds.
By the end of the assignment, I would say that most students had a pretty solid understanding of the basic idea of their battle and why it mattered in the war. I was pretty happy with this assignment in the end with how it was a good balance of scaffolded research skills and integrating the iPads in the class. I’m sure the assignment could be spiced up a bit in the future, but the basic outline of the assignment is one that I’ll continue working with.
I added a few images below of students working on the project and a newspaper article that one student wrote as part of his final product.